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Archive of posts published in the category: Wikipedia
Apr
26

Gadget (computer science) – Wikipedia

In computational complexity theory, a gadget is a subset of a problem instance that simulates the behavior of one of the fundamental units of a different computational problem. Gadgets are typically used to construct reductions from one computational problem to another, as part of proofs of NP-completeness or other types of computational hardness. The component design technique is a method for constructing reductions by using gadgets.[1]

Szabó (2009) traces the use of gadgets to a 1954 paper in graph theory by W. T. Tutte, in which Tutte provided gadgets for reducing the problem of finding a subgraph with given degree constraints to a perfect matching problem. However, the “gadget” terminology has a later origin, and does not appear in Tutte’s paper.[2][3]

Example[edit]

NP-completeness reduction from 3-satisfiability to graph 3-coloring. The gadgets for variables and clauses are shown on the upper and lower left, respectively;
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Apr
26

S (programming language) – Wikipedia

S is a statistical programming language developed primarily by John Chambers and (in earlier versions) Rick Becker and Allan Wilks of Bell Laboratories. The aim of the language, as expressed by John Chambers, is “to turn ideas into software, quickly and faithfully”.[1]

The modern implementation of S is R, a part of the GNU free software project. S-PLUS, a commercial product, was formerly sold by TIBCO Software.[citation needed]

History[edit]

“Old S”[edit]

S is one of several statistical computing languages that were designed at Bell Laboratories, and first took form between 1975–1976.[2] Up to that time, much of the statistical computing was done by directly calling Fortran subroutines; however, S was designed to offer an alternate and more interactive approach. Early design decisions that hold even today include interactive graphics devices (printers and character terminals at the time), and providing

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Apr
25

Programming language – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A programming language is a type of written language that tells computers what to do in order to work. Programming languages are used to make all the computer programs and computer software. A programming language is like a set of instructions that the computer follows to do something.

A programmer writes source code text in the programming language to create programs. Usually, the programming language uses real words for some of the commands, so that the language is easier for a human to read. Many programming languages use punctuation just like a normal language. Many programs now are “compiled”. This means that the computer translates the source code into another language (such as assembly language or machine language), which is much faster and easier for the computer

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Apr
19

Gadget – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Un gadget es un dispositivo que tiene un propósito y una función específica, generalmente de pequeñas proporciones, práctico y a la vez novedoso. Los gadgets suelen tener un diseño más ingenioso que el de la tecnología corriente.[1]

Se le ha dado el nombre de gadget o widget a una nueva categoría mini aplicaciones, las cuales fueron diseñadas para mejorar servicios, una aplicación, proveer información o cualquier tipo de interacción de un computador; esto se realiza a través del world wide web, por ejemplo una extensión de alguna aplicación de negocios, que nos provea información en tiempo real del estatus del negocio u organización.
Son comúnmente llamados gadgets a los dispositivos electrónicos portátiles como PDAs, móviles, teléfonos inteligentes, reproductores mp3, entre otros. En otras palabras, es una jerga electrónica.[2]

Aunque en español se emplea en círculos tecnológicos por influencia del inglés, y el

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Apr
18

Software – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Software

Buscador de Programas en Ubuntu 13.10

Se conoce como software[1]​ al soporte lógico de un sistema informático, que comprende el conjunto de los componentes lógicos necesarios que hacen posible la realización de tareas específicas, en contraposición a los componentes físicos que son llamados hardware. La interacción entre el software y el hardware hace operativo un ordenador (u otro dispositivo), es decir, el Software envía instrucciones que el Hardware ejecuta, haciendo posible su funcionamiento.

Los componentes lógicos incluyen, entre muchos otros, las aplicaciones informáticas, tales como el procesador de texto, que permite al usuario realizar todas las tareas concernientes a la edición de textos; el llamado software de sistema, tal como el sistema operativo, que básicamente permite al resto de los programas funcionar adecuadamente, facilitando también la interacción entre los componentes físicos y el resto de las aplicaciones, y proporcionando una interfaz con el usuario.

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Apr
17

Personal computer – Wikipedia

Computer intended for use by an individual person

An artist’s depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown).

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.[1] Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician. Unlike large costly minicomputers and mainframes, time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers.

Institutional or corporate computer owners in the 1960s had to write their own programs to do any useful work with the machines. While personal computer users

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Apr
12

Inspector Gadget (film) – Wikipedia

1999 comedy film produced by Walt Disney Pictures

Inspector Gadget (also known as Inspector Gadget: The Movie and The Real Inspector Gadget in the working title) is a 1999 American science fiction action comedy film directed by David Kellogg and written by Kerry Ehrin and Zak Penn from a story by Ehrin and Dana Olsen. Loosely based on the 1983 animated television series of the same name, the film stars Matthew Broderick as the title character, Rupert Everett as Dr. Claw, Michelle Trachtenberg as Penny and Dabney Coleman as Chief Quimby. Three new characters were introduced such as Dr. Brenda Bradford (played by Joely Fisher), Mayor Wilson (played by Cheri Oteri) and the Gadgetmobile (voiced by D. L. Hughley). The film tells the story of how Inspector Gadget and Dr. Claw came to be. It was filmed in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Baton Rouge, Louisiana; and Los Angeles, California with the ice

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Apr
9

Neuro-linguistic programming – Wikipedia

Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is a pseudoscientific approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in California, United States, in the 1970s. NLP’s creators claim there is a connection between neurological processes (neuro-), language (linguistic) and behavioral patterns learned through experience (programming), and that these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life.[1][2] Bandler and Grinder also claim that NLP methodology can “model” the skills of exceptional people, allowing anyone to acquire those skills.[3][4] They claim as well that, often in a single session, NLP can treat problems such as phobias, depression, tic disorders, psychosomatic illnesses, near-sightedness,[5] allergy, common cold,[6] and learning disorders.[7][8] NLP has been adopted by some hypnotherapists and also by companies that run seminars marketed as leadership training to businesses and government agencies.[9][10]

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Apr
9

Dynamic programming – Wikipedia

Figure 1. Finding the shortest path in a graph using optimal substructure; a straight line indicates a single edge; a wavy line indicates a shortest path between the two vertices it connects (among other paths, not shown, sharing the same two vertices); the bold line is the overall shortest path from start to goal.

Dynamic programming is both a mathematical optimization method and a computer programming method. The method was developed by Richard Bellman in the 1950s and has found applications in numerous fields, from aerospace engineering to economics. In both contexts it refers to simplifying a complicated problem by breaking it down into simpler sub-problems in a recursive manner. While some decision problems cannot be taken apart this way, decisions that span several points in time do often break apart recursively. Likewise, in computer science, if a problem can be solved optimally by breaking it into sub-problems and then

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Apr
9

Computer program – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A computer program is a list of instructions that tell a computer what to do. Everything a computer does is done by using a computer program. A computer program is written in a programming language. Programs stored in the memory of a computer enable the computer to perform tasks in sequence or even intermittently. The idea of an internally stored program was introduced in the late 1940s by the Hungarian-born mathematician John von Neumann. The first digital computer designed with internal programming capacity was the EDVAC (an acronym for Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), constructed in 1949.

Some examples of computer programs:

A computer program is stored as a file on the computer’s hard drive. When the user runs the program, the file is read by the computer, and the processor reads the data in the file as a list of instructions. Then the computer does what the program tells

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