Knuth: Computer Programming as an Art

CACM, December 1974

When Communications of the ACM began publication in 1959,
the members of ACM’S Editorial Board made the following remark as
they described the purposes of ACM’S periodicals [2]:

“If computer programming is to become an important part of computer
research and development, a transition of programming from an art
to a disciplined science must be effected.”

Such a
goal has been a continually recurring theme during the ensuing
years; for example, we read in 1970 of the “first steps toward
transforming the art of programming into a science” [26]. Meanwhile
we have actually succeeded in making our discipline a science, and
in a remarkably simple way: merely by deciding to call it “computer

Implicit in these remarks is the notion that there is something
undesirable about an area of human activity that is classified as
an “art”; it has to be a Science before it has any real stature.
On the other hand, I have been working for more than 12 years on a
series of books called “The Art of Computer Programming.”
People frequently ask me why I picked such a title; and in fact
some people apparently don’t believe that I really did so, since
I’ve seen at least one bibliographic reference to some books called
“The Act of Computer Programming.”

In this talk I shall try to explain why I think “Art” is the
appropriate word. I will discuss what it means for something to be
an art, in contrast to being a science; I will try to examine whether
arts are good things or bad things; and I will try to show that a
proper viewpoint of the subject will help us all to improve the
quality of what we are now doing.

One of the first times I was ever asked about the title of my books
was in 1966, during the last previous ACM national meeting held in
Southern California. This was before any of the books were published,
and I recall having lunch with a friend at the convention hotel.
He knew how conceited I was, already at that time, so he asked if
I was going to call my books “An Introduction to Don Knuth.” I
replied that, on the contrary, I was naming the books after him.
His name: Art Evans. (The Art of Computer Programming, in person.)

From this story we can conclude that the word “art” has more than
one meaning. In fact, one of the nicest things about the word is
that it is used in many different senses, each of which is quite
appropriate in connection with computer programming. While preparing
this talk, I went to the library to find out what people have written
about the word “art” through the years; and after spending several
fascinating days in the stacks, I came to the conclusion that “art”
must be one of the most interesting words in the English language.

The Arts of Old

If we go back to Latin roots, we find ars, artis meaning
“skill.” It is perhaps significant that the corresponding Greek
word was τεχνη, the root of both “technology”
and “technique.”

Nowadays when someone speaks of “art” you probably think first of
“fine arts” such as painting and sculpture, but before the twentieth
century the word was generally used in quite a different sense.
Since this older meaning of “art” still survives in many idioms,
especially when we are contrasting art with science, I would like
to spend the next few minutes talking about art in its classical

In medieval times, the first universities were established to teach
the seven so-called “liberal arts,” namely grammar, rhetoric, logic,
arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. Note that this is quite
different from the curriculum of today’s liberal arts colleges, and
that at least three of the original seven liberal arts are important
components of computer science. At that time, an “art” meant something
devised by man’s intellect, as opposed to activities derived from
nature or instinct; “liberal” arts were liberated or free, in
contrast to manual arts such as plowing (cf. [6]). During the middle
ages the word “art” by itself usually meant logic [4], which usually
meant the study of syllogisms.

Science vs. Art

The word “science” seems to have been used for many years in about
the same sense as “art”; for example, people spoke also of the seven
liberal sciences, which were the same as the seven liberal arts
[1]. Duns Scotus in the thirteenth century called logic “the Science
of Sciences, and the Art of Arts” (cf. [12, p. 34f]). As civilization
and learning developed, the words took on more and more independent
meanings, “science” being used to stand for knowledge, and “art”
for the application of knowledge. Thus, the science of astronomy
was the basis for the art of navigation. The situation was almost
exactly like the way in which we now distinguish between “science”
and “engineering.”

Many authors wrote about the relationship between art and science
in the nineteenth century, and I believe the best discussion was
given by John Stuart Mill. He said the following things, among
others, in 1843 [28]:

Several sciences are often
necessary to form the groundwork of a single art. Such is the
complication of human affairs, that to enable one thing to be
done, it is often requisite to know the nature and
properties of many things… Art in general consists of the truths
of Science, arranged in the most convenient order for practice,
instead of the order which is the most convenient for thought.
Science groups and arranges its truths so as to enable us to take
in at one view as much as possible of the general order of the
universe. Art… brings together from parts of the field of science
most remote from one another, the truths relating to the production
of the different and heterogeneous conditions necessary to each
effect which the exigencies of practical life require.

As I was looking up these things about the meanings of “art,” I
found that authors have been calling for a transition from art to
science for at least two centuries. For example, the preface to a
textbook on mineralogy, written in 1784, said the following [17]:
“Previous to the year 1780, mineralogy, though tolerably understood
by many as an Art, could scarce be deemed a Science.”

According to most dictionaries “science” means knowledge that has
been logically arranged and systematized in the form of general
“laws.” The advantage of science is that it saves us from the need
to think things through in each individual case; we can turn our
thoughts to higher-level concepts. As John Ruskin wrote in 1853
[32]: “The work of science is to substitute facts for appearances,
and demonstrations for impressions.”

It seems to me that if the authors I studied were writing today,
they would agree with the following characterization: Science is
knowledge which we understand so well that we can teach it to a
computer; and if we don’t fully understand something, it is an art
to deal with it. Since the notion of an algorithm or a computer
program provides us with an extremely useful test for the depth of
our knowledge about any given subject, the process of going from
an art to a science means that we learn how to automate something.

Artificial intelligence has been making significant progress, yet
there is a huge gap between what computers can do in the foreseeable
future and what ordinary people can do. The mysterious insights
that people have when speaking, listening, creating, and even when
they are programming, are still beyond the reach of science; nearly
everything we do is still an art.

From this standpoint it is certainly desirable to make computer
programming a science, and we have indeed come a long way in the
15 years since the publication of the remarks I quoted at the
beginning of this talk. Fifteen years ago computer programming was
so badly understood that hardly anyone even thought about
proving programs correct; we just fiddled with a program until we
“knew” it worked. At that time we didn’t even know how to express
the concept that a program was correct, in any rigorous way.
It is only in recent years that we have been learning about the
processes of abstraction by which programs are written and understood;
and this new knowledge about programming is currently producing
great payoffs in practice, even though few programs are actually
proved correct with complete rigor, since we are beginning to
understand the principles of program structure. The point is that
when we write programs today, we know that we could in principle
construct formal proofs of their correctness if we really wanted
to, now that we understand how such proofs are formulated. This
scientific basis is resulting in programs that are significantly
more reliable than those we wrote in former days when intuition was
the only basis of correctness.

The field of “automatic programming” is one of the major areas of
artificial intelligence research today. Its proponents would love
to be able to give a lecture entitled “Computer Programming as an
Artifact” (meaning that programming has become merely a relic of
bygone days), because their aim is to create machines that write
programs better than we can, given only the problem specification.
Personally I don’t think such a goal will ever be completely attained,
but I do think that their research is extremely important, because
everything we learn about programming helps us to improve our own
artistry. In this sense we should continually be striving to transform
every art into a science: in the process, we advance the

Science and Art

Our discussion indicates that computer
programming is by now both a science and an art, and that
the two aspects nicely complement each other. Apparently most authors
who examine such a question come to this same conclusion, that their
subject is both a science and an art, whatever their subject is
(cf. [25]). I found a book about elementary photography, written
in 1893, which stated that “the development of the photographic
image is both an art and a science” [13]. In fact, when I first
picked up a dictionary in order to study the words “art” and
“science,” I happened to glance at the editor’s preface, which began
by saying, “The making of a dictionary is both a science and an
art.” The editor of Funk & Wagnall’s dictionary [27] observed that
the painstaking accumulation and classification of data about words
has a scientific character, while a well-chosen phrasing of definitions
demands the ability to write with economy and precision: “The science
without the art is likely to be ineffective; the art without the
science is certain to be inaccurate.”

When preparing this talk I looked through the card catalog at
Stanford library to see how other people have been using the words
“art” and “science” in the titles of their books. This turned out
to be quite interesting.

For example, I found two books entitled The Art of Playing the
[5, 15], and others called The Science of Pianoforte
[10], The Science of Pianoforte Practice [30].
There is also a book called The Art of Piano Playing: A Scientific

Then I found a nice little book entitled The Gentle Art of
[31], which made me somewhat sad that I can’t
honestly describe computer programming as a “gentle art.” I had
known for several years about a book called The Art of
, published in San Francisco, 1879, by a man named
C. Frusher Howard [14]. This was a book on practical business
arithmetic that had sold over 400,000 copies in various editions
by 1890. I was amused to read the preface, since it shows that
Howard’s philosophy and the intent of his title were quite different
from mine; he wrote: “A knowledge of the Science of Number is of
minor importance; skill in the Art of Reckoning is absolutely

Several books mention both science and art in their titles, notably
The Science of Being and Art of Living by Maharishi Mahesh
Yogi [24]. There is also a book called The Art of Scientific
[11], which analyzes how some of the great discoveries
of science were made.

So much for the word “art” in its classical meaning. Actually when
I chose the title of my books, I wasn’t thinking primarily of art
in this sense, I was thinking more of its current connotations.
Probably the most interesting book which turned up in my search was
a fairly recent work by Robert E. Mueller called The Science of
[29]. Of all the books I’ve mentioned, Mueller’s comes
closest to expressing what I want to make the central theme of my
talk today, in terms of real artistry as we now understand the term.
He observes: “It was once thought that the imaginative outlook of
the artist was death for the scientist. And the logic of science
seemed to spell doom to all possible artistic flights of fancy.”
He goes on to explore the advantages which actually do result from
a synthesis of science and art.

A scientific approach is generally characterized by the words
logical, systematic, impersonal, calm, rational, while an artistic
approach is characterized by the words aesthetic, creative,
humanitarian, anxious, irrational. It seems to me that both of
these apparently contradictory approaches have great value with
respect to computer programming.

Emma Lehmer wrote in 1956 that she had found coding to be “an
exacting science as well as an intriguing art” [23]. H.S.M. Coxeter
remarked in 1957 that he sometimes felt “more like an artist than
a scientist” [7]. This was at the time C.P. Snow was beginning to
voice his alarm at the growing polarization between “two cultures”
of educated people [34, 35]. He pointed out that we need to combine
scientific and artistic values if we are to make real progress.

Works of Art

When I’m sitting in an audience listening to a long lecture, my
attention usually starts to wane at about this point in the hour.
So I wonder, are you getting a little tired of my harangue about
“science” and “art”? I really hope that you’ll be able to listen
carefully to the rest of this, anyway, because now comes the part
about which I feel most deeply.

When I speak about computer programming as an art, I am thinking
primarily of it as an art form, in an aesthetic sense. The
chief goal of my work as educator and author is to help people learn
how to write beautiful programs. It is for this reason I
was especially pleased to learn recently [32] that my books actually
appear in the Fine Arts Library at Cornell University. (However,
the three volumes apparently sit there neatly on the shelf, without
being used, so I’m afraid the librarians may have made a mistake
by interpreting my title literally.)

My feeling is that when we prepare a program, it can be like composing
poetry or music; as Andrei Ershov has said [9], programming can
give us both intellectual and emotional satisfaction, because it
is a real achievement to master complexity and to establish a system
of consistent rules.

Furthermore when we read other people’s programs, we can recognize
some of them as genuine works of art. I can still remember the great
thrill it was for me to read the listing of Stan Poley’s SOAP II
assembly program in 1958; you probably think I’m crazy, and styles
have certainly changed greatly since then, but at the time it meant
a great deal to me to see how elegant a system program could be,
especially by comparison with the heavy-handed coding found in other
listings I had been studying at the same time. The possibility of
writing beautiful programs, even in assembly language, is what got
me hooked on programming in the first place.

Some programs are elegant, some are exquisite, some are sparkling.
My claim is that it is possible to write grand programs,
noble programs, truly magnificent ones!

Taste and Style

The idea of style in programming is now coming to the forefront
at last, and I hope that most of you have seen the excellent little
book on Elements of Programming Style by Kernighan and Plauger
[16]. In this connection it is most important for us all to remember
that there is no one “best” style; everybody has his own preferences,
and it is a mistake to try to force people into an unnatural mold.
We often hear the saying, “I don’t know anything about art, but I
know what I like.” The important thing is that you really like
the style you are using; it should be the best way you prefer to
express yourself.

Edsger Dijkstra stressed this point in the preface to his Short
Introduction to the Art of Programming

It is
my purpose to transmit the importance of good taste and style in
programming, [but] the specific elements of style presented serve
only to illustrate what benefits can be derived from “style” in
general. In this respect I feel akin to the teacher of composition
at a conservatory: He does not teach his pupils how to compose a
particular symphony, he must help his pupils to find their own style
and must explain to them what is implied by this. (It has been this
analogy that made me talk about “The Art of Programming.”)

Now we must ask ourselves, What is good style, and what is bad
style? We should not be too rigid about this in judging other
people’s work. The early nineteenth-century philosopher Jeremy
Bentham put it this way [3, Bk. 3, Ch. 1]:

Judges of
elegance and taste consider themselves as benefactors to the human
race, whilst they are really only the interrupters of their pleasure…
There is no taste which deserves the epithet good, unless
it be the taste for such employments which, to the pleasure actually
produced by them, conjoin some contingent or future utility: there
is no taste which deserves to be characterized as bad, unless it
be a taste for some occupation which has a mischievous tendency.

When we apply our own prejudices to “reform” someone
else’s taste, we may be unconsciously denying him some entirely
legitimate pleasure. That’s why I don’t condemn a lot of things
programmers do, even though I would never enjoy doing them myself.
The important thing is that they are creating something they
feel is beautiful.

In the passage I just quoted, Bentham does give us some advice about
certain principles of aesthetics which are better than others,
namely the “utility” of the result. We have some freedom in setting
up our personal standards of beauty, but it is especially nice when
the things we regard as beautiful are also regarded by other people
as useful. I must confess that I really enjoy writing computer
programs; and I especially enjoy writing programs which do the
greatest good, in some sense.

There are many senses in which a program can be “good,” of course.
In the first place, it’s especially good to have a program that
works correctly. Secondly it is often good to have a program that
won’t be hard to change, when the time for adaptation arises. Both
of these goals are achieved when the program is easily readable and
understandable to a person who knows the appropriate language.

Another important way for a production program to be good is for
it to interact gracefully with its users, especially when recovering
from human errors in the input data. It’s a real art to compose
meaningful error messages or to design flexible input formats which
are not error-prone.

Another important aspect of program quality is the efficiency with
which the computer’s resources are actually being used. I am sorry
to say that many people nowadays are condemning program efficiency,
telling us that it is in bad taste. The reason for this is that we
are now experiencing a reaction from the time when efficiency was
the only reputable criterion of goodness, and programmers in the
past have tended to be so preoccupied with efficiency that they
have produced needlessly complicated code; the result of this
unnecessary complexity has been that net efficiency has gone down,
due to difficulties of debugging and maintenance.

The real problem is that programmers have spent far too much time
worrying about efficiency in the wrong places and at the wrong
times; premature optimization is the root of all evil (or at least
most of it) in programming.

We shouldn’t be penny wise and pound foolish, nor should we always
think of efficiency in terms of so many percent gained or lost in
total running time or space. When we buy a car, many of us are
almost oblivious to a difference of $50 or $100 in its price, while
we might make a special trip to a particular store in order to buy
a 50 cent item for only 25 cents. My point is that there is a time
and place for efficiency; I have discussed its proper role in my
paper on structured programming, which appears in the current issue
of Computing Surveys [21].

Less Facilities: More Enjoyment

One rather curious thing I’ve noticed about aesthetic satisfaction
is that our pleasure is significantly enhanced when we accomplish
something with limited tools. For example, the program of which I
personally am most pleased and proud is a compiler I once wrote for
a primitive minicomputer which had only 4096 words of memory, 16
bits per word. It makes a person feel like a real virtuoso to achieve
something under such severe restrictions.

A similar phenomenon occurs in many other contexts. For example,
people often seem to fall in love with their Volkswagens but rarely
with their Lincoln Continentals (which presumably run much better).
When I learned programming, it was a popular pastime to do as much
as possible with programs that fit on only a single punched card.
I suppose it’s this same phenomenon that makes APL enthusiasts
relish their “one-liners.” When we teach programming nowadays, it
is a curious fact that we rarely capture the heart of a student for
computer science until he has taken a course which allows “hands
on” experience with a minicomputer. The use of our large-scale
machines with their fancy operating systems and languages doesn’t
really seem to engender any love for programming, at least not at

It’s not obvious how to apply this principle to increase programmers’
enjoyment of their work. Surely programmers would groan if their
manager suddenly announced that the new machine will have only half
as much memory as the old. And I don’t think anybody, even the most
dedicated “programming artists,” can be expected to welcome such a
prospect, since nobody likes to lose facilities unnecessarily.
Another example may help to clarify the situation: Film-makers
strongly resisted the introduction of talking pictures in the 1920’s
because they were justly proud of the way they could convey words
without sound. Similarly, a true programming artist might well
resent the introduction of more powerful equipment; today’s mass
storage devices tend to spoil much of the beauty of our old tape
sorting methods. But today’s film makers don’t want to go back to
silent films, not because they’re lazy but because they know it is
quite possible to make beautiful movies using the improved technology.
The form of their art has changed, but there is still plenty of
room for artistry.

How did they develop their skill? The best film makers through the
years usually seem to have learned their art in comparatively
primitive circumstances, often in other countries with a limited
movie industry. And in recent years the most important things we
have been learning about programming seem to have originated with
people who did not have access to very large computers. The moral
of this story, it seems to me, is that we should make use of the
idea of limited resources in our own education. We can all benefit
by doing occasional “toy” programs, when artificial restrictions
are set up, so that we are forced to push our abilities to the
limit. We shouldn’t live in the lap of luxury all the time, since
that tends to make us lethargic. The art of tackling miniproblems
with all our energy will sharpen our talents for the real problems,
and the experience will help us to get more pleasure from our
accomplishments on less restricted equipment.

In a similar vein, we shouldn’t shy away from “art for art’s sake”;
we shouldn’t feel guilty about programs that are just for fun. I
once got a great kick out of writing a one-statement ALGOL program
that invoked an innerproduct procedure in such an unusual way that
it calculated the mth prime number, instead of an innerproduct [19].
Some years ago the students at Stanford were excited about finding
the shortest FORTRAN program which prints itself out, in the sense
that the program’s output is identical to its own source text. The
same problem was considered for many other languages. I don’t think
it was a waste of time for them to work on this; nor would Jeremy
Bentham, whom I quoted earlier, deny the “utility” of such pastimes
[3, Bk. 3, Ch. 1]. “On the contrary,” he wrote, “there is nothing,
the utility of which is more incontestable. To what shall the
character of utility be ascribed, if not to that which is a source
of pleasure?”

Providing Beautiful Tools

Another characteristic of modern art is its emphasis on creativity.
It seems that many artists these days couldn’t care less about
creating beautiful things; only the novelty of an idea is important.
I’m not recommending that computer programming should be like modern
art in this sense, but it does lead me to an observation that I
think is important. Sometimes we are assigned to a programming task
which is almost hopelessly dull, giving us no outlet whatsoever for
any creativity; and at such times a person might well come to me
and say, “So programming is beautiful? It’s all very well for you
to declaim that I should take pleasure in creating elegant and
charming programs, but how am I supposed to make this mess into a
work of art?”

Well, it’s true, not all programming tasks are going to be fun.
Consider the “trapped housewife,” who has to clean off the same
table every day: there’s not room for creativity or artistry in
every situation. But even in such cases, there is a way to make a
big improvement: it is still a pleasure to do routine jobs if we
have beautiful things to work with. For example, a person will
really enjoy wiping off the dining room table, day after day, if
it is a beautifully designed table made from some fine quality

Therefore I want to address my closing remarks to the system
programmers and the machine designers who produce the systems that
the rest of us must work with. Please, give us tools that
are a pleasure to use, especially for our routine assignments,
instead of providing something we have to fight with. Please, give
us tools that encourage us to write better programs, by enhancing
our pleasure when we do so.

It’s very hard for me to convince college freshmen that programming
is beautiful, when the first thing I have to tell them is how to
punch “slash slash JoB equals so-and-so.” Even job control languages
can be designed so that they are a pleasure to use, instead of being
strictly functional.

Computer hardware designers can make their machines much more
pleasant to use, for example by providing floating-point arithmetic
which satisfies simple mathematical laws. The facilities presently
available on most machines make the job of rigorous error analysis
hopelessly difficult, but properly designed operations would encourage
numerical analysts to provide better subroutines which have certified
accuracy (cf. [20, p. 204]).

Let’s consider also what software designers can do. One of the
best ways to keep up the spirits of a system user is to provide
routines that he can interact with. We shouldn’t make systems too
automatic, so that the action always goes on behind the scenes; we
ought to give the programmer-user a chance to direct his creativity
into useful channels. One thing all programmers have in common is
that they enjoy working with machines; so let’s keep them in the
loop. Some tasks are best done by machine, while others are best
done by human insight; and a properly designed system will find the
right balance. (I have been trying to avoid misdirected automation
for many years, cf. [18].)

Program measurement tools make a good case in point. For years,
programmers have been unaware of how the real costs of computing
are distributed in their programs. Experience indicates that nearly
everybody has the wrong idea about the real bottlenecks in his
programs; it is no wonder that attempts at efficiency go awry so
often, when a programmer is never given a breakdown of costs according
to the lines of code he has written. His job is something like that
of a newly married couple who try to plan a balanced budget without
knowing how much the individual items like food, shelter, and
clothing will cost. All that we have been giving programmers is an
optimizing compiler, which mysteriously does something to the
programs it translates but which never explains what it does.
Fortunately we are now finally seeing the appearance of systems
which give the user credit for some intelligence; they automatically
provide instrumentation of programs and appropriate feedback about
the real costs. These experimental systems have been a huge success,
because they produce measurable improvements, and especially because
they are fun to use, so I am confident that it is only a matter of
time before the use of such systems is standard operating procedure.
My paper in Computing Surveys [21] discusses this further,
and presents some ideas for other ways in which an appropriate
interactive routine can enhance the satisfaction of user programmers.

Language designers also have an obligation to provide languages
that encourage good style, since we all know that style is strongly
influenced by the language in which it is expressed. The present
surge of interest in structured programming has revealed that none
of our existing languages is really ideal for dealing with program
and data structure, nor is it clear what an ideal language should
be. Therefore I look forward to many careful experiments in language
design during the next few years.


To summarize: We have seen that computer programming is an art,
because it applies accumulated knowledge to the world, because it
requires skill and ingenuity, and especially because it produces
objects of beauty. A programmer who subconsciously views himself
as an artist will enjoy what he does and will do it better. Therefore
we can be glad that people who lecture at computer conferences speak
about the state of the Art.


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