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If you came here specifically to fix a slow computer, then you came to the right place. The primary goal of this site is to provide guides and articles and so you can solve the problem yourself.

There are many things that can cause a slow PC such as registry errors, a virus, spyware, a lack of memory, or hard drive fragmentation. Luckily, all of these are fixable problems. Most of the issues can be fixed for free. Only a few of the problems listed above need any type of investment in software or hardware.

5 Steps to a Faster Computer

Generally speaking, 90% of computers will be sped up noticeably by completing ALL of the steps below, assuming you don’t have a nasty virus. These 5 steps are aimed at the most basic users and the full 5 step guide shouldn’t take too long to complete.

1) Defragment the Hard Drive

This task is very simple. To Defragment your hard drive, open up “My Computer”, Right Click on C:, Click properties, Click the “Tools” Tab, Click “Defragment Now”, Click Defragment, click ok. Here is more info from Microsoft on this.

2) Add Memory

If your laptop or desktop is starting to become dated, a memory upgrade will be the best hardware upgrade for you. Buying and installing memory is easier than you think. Here is a guide talking about the installation of memory.

3) Remove Spyware

Spyware can build up on your system and slow you down over time. Download and Install Ad-Aware, a free anti-spyware tool and then use it to remove all spyware that is on your PC.

4) Remove Unused Programs, Files, Folders

Do you have any unneeded programs, pictures, music, or videos? If so, deleting these will free up disk space which will increase the speed of your system. To remove programs, go to the control panel -> add/remove programs (or uninstall programs) -> click on the program you want to uninstall -> click “uninstall”.

5) Optimizing Windows Startup Programs

After you remove unneeded programs, you can also optimize the Windows Startup process so programs you don’t use often don’t start up automatically when Windows starts. You can check out our guide for optimizing windows startup programs for more help.

My System is Still Slow, Now What?

If your system is still not up


Computer and Internet Fraud | Wex | US Law


Fraud through the criminal use of a computer or the Internet can take many different forms. “Hacking” is a common form, in which a perpetrator uses technological tools to remotely access a protected computer or system. Another common form involves the interception of an electronic transmission unintended for the interceptor, such as passwords, credit card information, or other types of identity theft.

Statutory Definition

Computer fraud is defined in federal law in the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) as the access of a protected computer without authorization or exceeding authorization. The plain text of the statute appears to limit which computers are protected by the law:

(2) the term “protected computer” means a computer—
(A) …
(B) which is used in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce or communication, including a computer located outside the United States that is used in a manner that affects interstate or foreign commerce or communication of the United States

However, in practice a “protected computer” has been defined as any computer with Internet access,1 because the Internet is an “instrumentality and channel of interstate commerce”.2  Thus, the courts apply the law to nearly all computers by invoking the Commerce Clause. 

Specifically, the CFAA prohibits computer espionage, computer trespassing in private or public computers, committing fraud with a computer, the distribution of malicious code, password trafficking, threatening to damage a protected computer. Although the CFAA is primarily a criminal statute, it does define a civil cause of action in § 1030(g).

Examples of computer or internet fraud in action include but are not limited to:

  • Emails requesting money in return for small deposits, also known as an advance-fee scam, such as the infamous Nigerian prince scam.
  • Emails attempting to gather personal information such as account numbers, Social Security numbers, and passwords; also known as phishing.
  • Using someone else’s computer to access personal information with the intent to use such fraudulently.
  • Installing spyware or malware to engage in data mining.
  • Violating copyright laws by copying information with the intent to sell it.
  • Hacking into or illegally using a computer to change information, such as grades, work reports, etc.
  • Sending computer viruses or worms with the intent to destroy or ruin another’s computer.
  • Denial of service, in which an authorized user’s access to a network is intentionally interrupted.

Violators may be prosecuted under:

See also White-collar crime, Investor Protection Guide: Internet Fraud, Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act, spam.

Last updated in July of 2017 by Stephanie Jurkowski.

Source Article


Jan’s Computer Basics | Jegsworks


You don’t have to know everything to be comfortable with computers. But there is a lot of
information that will help you understand why things are the way they
are… and how disaster can strike!

“Knowledge is power!” So it’s to your advantage to gather all the knowledge
that you can. Besides which, computers are lots of fun – when
they aren’t driving you insane!!!

Computer Hardware

Computer Hardware – Not all computers look like computers!
Image credit: 123RF Stock Photos

What’s in these lessons?

The lessons in this Computer Basics section of Jan’s Illustrated
Computer Literacy 101
Icon: On Site explain a lot of the techno-babble that you hear about computers.
The goal is to learn enough that you can follow along
as computer technology becomes more and more important in our world.

Consider this set of lessons “Beginning Driver’s Ed” for the computer. What might be covered in a Driver’s Education course in high school? How the engine works. Parts of the car. How to turn it on. How to shift gears. Rules of the road. Laws. Proper signaling. Lane changing. Basic maintenance. Changing a flat. Filling up with gas. Some clues on when “You’d better stop the car now!”

The topics covered here will introduce you to a similar set of topics about
computers. When you finish, you’ll be just as prepared to “drive” a computer,
as you were to drive a car when you finished Driver’s Ed. Scary thought, isn’t
it? That clearly means you will need lots of practice with a skilled “driver”
in the passenger’s seat before you can be considered “safe on the road!” But we
can get you started! You’ll understand the basic ideas behind
computers, some of the ills that affect computers, and some of the basic safety
measures to take to keep your computer healthy. You’ll gain some knowledge of
how we got to today’s computers and what lies ahead. It will be great!

The Computer Basics unit does not require you to touch a computer,
except to read the lessons. Other lesson units
guide you in actually using a computer, starting with Working with Windows Icon: On Site.

If you are using this site as part of a class, your instructor may have
you do only certain sections or do them in a different order.

Are you ready? Click on the arrow at the right below to start your first lesson.


Icon: On Site marks a link to a page or file that is part of this site

Icon: Off Site marks a link to a page or file that is NOT part of this site. You must be connected to the Internet to view.

For more detailed lessons on software, try the tutorials on Windows Icon: On Site,the web Icon: On Site, word processing Icon: On Site, spreadsheets Icon: On Site, presentations Icon: On Site, and databases Icon: On Site.

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Kid Computers #1 Best Computer and Laptop for Kids and Education PC

Children’s Library Center Kiosk Solutions

Kid Computers - Kids' Education Station v7 2019

Education Station

Kid's Education Station Basic - Best Kids ComputerKids’ Education Station

The best solution for children’s library centers is our kiosk systems, the Kids’ Education Stations.

Now available with Windows 10, this computer offers over 100 educational programs and games for toddler to teen. Includes optional timed session and Internet safe browsing.

Packed with so much fun it is often used in children’s library centers and doesn’t need Internet support unless desired.

Education Stations

Budget Desktop

Library Computer | School Computer | Daycar ComputerKids Learning Station

This kids computer makes a perfection addition to any school or library.

A classical desktop computer unit with the same software solutions as the Education Station, but at half the cost.

We accept purchase orders on all computer systems from public libraries and daycare centers.

Computers For Kids

Refurbished Units

RefurbishedKids Re-PC

Looking for the most cost effect children’s Kiosk system? See our solution for refurbished computers.

We recycle computer systems sent back to us for upgrades. After cleaning them up, testing we recertify them for resell. Based on past generation hardware we still stand behind them as a perfect solution for Kids’ Computers.

Learn More

Computers for Kids

Child Friendly OSOur educational computers have been used in schools, libraries, day-cares and homes since 1999.
Our systems were specially designed to promote higher learning for children of all ages. These educational computers have been appropriately named “Wonder Machines”, and they come jam packed with loads software and games that give kids an exciting new way to learn.

Learning Environment For Children

educational computersOur software turns Windows 10 into a child-friendly operating system, which creates the perfect learning environment for children.
Our Kiosk management system integrates perfectly into Windows 10, thus creating the ultimate educational system for children.
Kid Computers specially developed this to give parents a peace of mind in knowing that their kids are always having a fun and safe educational computer browsing experience.

Kids Search

Success Stories

Since purchasing Wonder Desktops for my class, I’ve seen a drastic improvement in my students overall attitude towards learning.

~Monica. Omaha, NE~

Your educational software helped my son improve his average by at least one letter grade! Thank you!

~Tonya. Boston, MA.~

Is it bad that my toddler can maneuver around our touch screen computer better than me?

~James. Catskill, NY.~

This company developed a computer that fits perfect with my classroom’s learning agenda! They are truly amazing people.

~Samantha. Pensacola, FL.

I love the feeling in knowing that my children are always safe and secure when surfing the net.

~Troy. Tulsa, OK.~

I just wanted to say how much I really appreciate what you guys are doing. Your computers are simply amazing!

~Cassandra. Kent, MD~

Source Article


Computer Parts at

Service and Price.

I’m a first time buyer and will definitely use TigerDirect again. I did not ask for next service but that’s what I got. I ordered on Wednesday and it arrived on Thursday! The packaging was very secure. I bought the computer
as a travel computer – sort of a cheap alternative to my main work laptop. The reconditioned computer from TIGERDIRECT exceeded my expectations.

By Eville

See testimonials.

Source Article


The Importance Of Computers In Our Daily Lives


In the current world, it’s almost impossible to imagine that someone can live without computers. They have become an electronic device of almost every day use for individuals of every age, and essential in almost all the business dealings that are made nowadays.

The most that any industry has gained from the discovery of the computer is the business industry because of its nature.

In recent years they have gained significance as they have improved the efficiency and productivity of work done. Large amounts of information in industrial and business sectors as well as in the personal lives are stored on servers.

Uses of computer

Computing can help businesses by making their staff efficient and productive and also save their valuable time in any business or office.

In schools they will help the learners to comprehend the basic concepts better with the help of video or audio examples.

In higher learning institutions they will help the professors and researchers to do their work very fast and in an efficient and better way and also help them to share the same knowledge with their other members of staff.

They also become a vital gadget in several sectors; railways, banking, electricity, telephone departments, shopping carts etc are just but a few of them.

Also they are used in the medical industry to help doctors in diagnosing the diseases quickly and efficiently.

All the administrative systems, whether private or public are now using these systems and this practice can be evident in every part of the world.

Computing advancements in business

Computers have also helped the media and the entertainment industries. Be it a multi-million dollars movie or a two minutes commercial, they have changed the usual concept of providing entertainment to the public.

With the electronics business growing so fast, the industry has also brought about lots of inventions. Tablets, palmtops, and laptops have replaced the desktops.

With the decrease in size, it has become very easy to carry and use them anywhere you are to the fullest.

The importance of computers in our daily lives can be judged by the number of people using them each single day. They are not only used by professionals, but also by the little children learning coding and adults at our homes.


Today, everything related to your everyday life can be done in a few simple clicks.

You can order your breakfast online, you can read the newspapers online, you can work from the comfort of your home with the help of a laptop.

You can watch movies and videos through Youtube ect, you can listen to music through soundcloud, you can read novels and books through e-books, you can play games, you can also contact people and talk to them through your microphone and email.

These are just but a few things that can be done with the click of a button.

Source Article


The Five Generations of Computers

Main » Did You Know » Hardware & Software »

By Vangie Beal

Learn about each of the five generations of computers and major technology developments that have led to the computing devices that we use today.

Webopedia Study GuideThe history of computer development is a computer science topic that is often used to reference the different generations of computing devices.

Each one of the five generations of computers is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate.

Most major developments from the 1940’s to present day have resulted in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient computing devices.

What Are the Five Generations of Computers?

In this Webopedia Study Guide, you’ll learn more about each of the five generations of computers and the advances in technology that have led to the development of the many computing devices that we use today. Our journey of the five generations of computers starts in 1940 with vacuum tube circuitry and goes to the present day and beyond   with artificial intelligence (AI) systems and devices.

Let’s take a look…

Five Generations of Computers Checklist

Webopedia Study Guide SectionGetting Started: Key Terms to Know
Webopedia Study Guide SectionFirst Generation: Vacuum Tubes
Webopedia Study Guide SectionSecond Generation Transistors
Webopedia Study Guide SectionThird Generation Integrated Circuits
Webopedia Study Guide SectionFourth Generation Microprocessors
Webopedia Study Guide SectionFifth Generation Artificial Intelligence

Getting Started: Key Terms to Know

The following technology definitions will help you to better understand the five generations of computing:

First Generation: Vacuum Tubes (1940-1956)

The first computer systems used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. These computers were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, the first computers generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.

First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. It would take operators days or even weeks to set-up a new problem. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.

The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.

A UNIVAC computer at the Census Bureau
A UNIVAC computer at the Census Bureau.
Image Source: United States Census Bureau

Recommended Reading: Webopedia’s ENIAC definition

Second Generation: Transistors (1956-1963)

The world would see transistors replace vacuum tubes in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. 

The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.

From Binary to Assembly


Computer Science | Kent State University

Faculty Office Hours Undergraduate CS Tutoring

The Department of Computer Science offers degrees at the Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral levels. Our faculty believe in a strong advising approach and, as advisors, help students choose the appropriate program according to their goals, needs and interests. Students who are interested in a Computer Science degree with a rich set of options and electives should consider Kent State University.

Computer Science News

  • You can make a difference in the battle against COVID-19!  PhD Student Irvin Cardenas has organized a fundraising effort to collect urgently needed masks for medical personnel in Northeast Ohio.   If you would like to contribute please go to here.  Answers to questions you should ask before you donate can be found on the link. Read the story here.
  • Need Undergraduate Advising?  The CS Faculty Advisors would be happy to arrange an online advising appointment – see Undergraduate Faculty Advising for details.
  • CS TUTORING:  During the pause in on-campus, face-to-face classes, we want to try to continue tutoring via computer.  Most of the tutors have decided to hold virtual question times through direct messages during their regularly posted tutoring times and any updates will be posted in the tutoring channel of the discord.  Here is the link:

  • NEED HELP FROM CS OFFICE?  Due to the preventative measures KSU is taking, we want you to know that we will continue to conduct business, just not “as usual”.  Our Office Staff will be reduced in number and will be either in the office or at home monitoring email and performing work we will facilitate via emails and Zoom chats, etc.  Please email us because we will is an email which all of the main office staff receives in their mailbox so you have the best chance of the swiftest answer using that email

  • KSU Computer Science majors should consider applying for 2020-2021 scholarships.  The deadline is March 31, 2020.

  • Undergraduate Computer Science students Marcus Arnett, Brandon Price, Josh Behler, Adam Petrich and James Gingerich won “Most Market/Venture Potential” for their hack in the Fashion/Tech Hackathon 2020!  Learn about the backpack, BackTrac, project here! Congratulations, ATR Team!
  • Professor Jonathan Maletic is addressing the 27th IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution and Reengineering in London, Ontario, Canada, as KEYNOTE SPEAKER on February 20.   Read more about his talk here.
  • On January 21, 2020 Kent State University entered into the Era of Big Data Science through an NSF Grant! Read more here.
  • Congratulations to Professor Arvind Bansal as his newest textbook Introduction to Computational Health Informatics, has just been published by Chapman & Hall/CRC Press under its “data mining and knowledge discovery series.”  Read more.  Press release here.
  • Javed I. Khan, Professor and Chair of the Computer Science Department has secured a $2 million grant to support the higher education of Ohio students starting with newly admitted students for the Fall 2020 semester.  Find out more about the Choose Ohio

History of Computers

This chapter is a brief summary of the history of Computers. It is supplemented by the two PBS documentaries video tapes “Inventing the Future”
And “The Paperback Computer”. The
chapter highlights some of the advances to look for in the documentaries.

In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things:

  • The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data:
    1. Vacuum Tubes (1950s) – one bit on the size of a thumb;
    2. Transistors (1950s and 1960s) – one bit on the size of a fingernail;
    3. Integrated Circuits (1960s and 70s) – thousands of bits on the size of a hand
    4. Silicon computer chips (1970s and on) – millions of bits on the size of a finger nail.

  • The progression of the ease of use of computers:
    1. Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses (1950s);
    2. Programmable by highly trained people only (1960s and 1970s);
    3. Useable by just about anyone (1980s and on).

to see how computers got smaller, cheaper, and easier to use.

First Computers

Eniac Computer

The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper
Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC (Electrical Numerical
Integrator and Calculator) used a word of 10 decimal digits instead of binary
ones like previous automated calculators/computers. ENIAC was also the first
machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes.
Storage of all those vacuum tubes and the machinery required to keep the cool
took up over 167 square meters (1800 square feet) of floor space. Nonetheless,
it had punched-card input and output and arithmetically had 1 multiplier, 1
divider-square rooter, and 20 adders employing decimal “ring counters,” which
served as adders and also as quick-access (0.0002 seconds) read-write register

The executable instructions composing a program were embodied in the separate
units of ENIAC, which were plugged together to form a route through the
machine for the flow of computations. These connections had to be redone for
each different problem, together with presetting function tables and switches.
This “wire-your-own” instruction technique was inconvenient, and only with
some license could ENIAC be considered programmable; it was, however,
efficient in handling the particular programs for which it had been designed.
ENIAC is generally acknowledged to be the first successful high-speed
electronic digital computer (EDC) and was productively used from 1946 to 1955.
A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC’s
basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another U.S. physicist, John
V. Atanasoff, had already used the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube device
he built in the 1930s while at Iowa State College. In 1973, the court found in
favor of the company using Atanasoff claim and Atanasoff received the
acclaim he rightly deserved.

Progression of Hardware

In the 1950’s two devices would be invented that would improve the computer
field and set in motion the beginning


Department of Computer Science – Old Dominion University

The College of Sciences remains committed to the success of our students during these challenging times. Our faculty and staff have worked incredibly hard to move classes online and address student concerns. We continue to support our students through on-line tutoring and ​academic advising. Together we will persevere under these circumstances to ensure continued learning and student success. Go Monarchs!

– Dean Gail Dodge

We are experiencing rapid growth in our department in terms of both enrollment and research:

  • Over 600 undergraduates, 100 MS students, and 40 PhD students
  • Significant external research funding from federal agencies such as NSF, NASA, NEH, NIH, DoD, IIPL, NIA, and others
  • High-quality online BS and MS degree programs and an online graduate certificate in cybersecurity

We welcome you to join our department and benefit from the wide variety of courses offered as well as opportunities to work with our faculty in research.

Read the rest of the Chair’s Welcome

Undergraduate Programs

 student studying in front of Perry Library

Graduate Programs

Computer Science Student Graduating

Student Resources

Connected resources

Scholarships and Endowments



 Robotic assembly line

Web Science and Digital Libraries

WSDL Group Picture

Center for Real Time Computing

Turing Cluster Row

High Performance Computing

HPC Research Group


Computer Science Alumni Lecture Series

09/27/2019 12:00 PM – 09/23/2019 1:00 PM

Presenter – Michael Le Location – Notes: Counts as colloquium credit.


PhD Gathering

10/08/2019 12:30 PM – 10/08/2019 1:30 PM

Presenter – Nwala Alexander


CS Colloquium: Anastasia Angelopoulou

10/25/2019 10:30 AM – 10/25/2019 12:00 PM

Anastasia Angelopoulou


CS Colloquium: Dr. Daniele Panozzo

11/01/2019 10:30 AM – 11/01/2019 12:00 PM

Black-Box Analysis Prof. Anastasia Angelopoulou TSYS School of Computer Science Columbus State University (CSU). Abstract: The numerical…


PhD Gathering – Eleni Adam

11/12/2019 10:00 AM – 11/12/2019 11:04 AM


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