Tag Archives

Archive of posts published in the category: program

Learn to Program HTML in 21 Minutes

Learn to Program HTML in 21 Minutes

Hardcopy featured a 10-year-old boy one night back in the
mid-1990s. His psychotic mother wouldn’t take her meds and was beating
him up. He wanted to live with his father but the judge wouldn’t change
his custody arrangement. So the 10-year-old kid built a Web site to
encourage Internetters to contact the judge in support of a change in

If you think that you need professional help to build a static HTML Web
site, tell yourself “The abused 10-year-old got his site to
work; I think I can, too.”

You May Already Have Won $1 Million

Then again, maybe not. But at least you already know how to write legal HTML:

My Samoyed is really hairy.

That is a perfectly acceptable HTML document. Type it up in a text
editor, save it as index.html, and put it on your Web server. A Web
server can serve it. A user with Netscape Navigator can view it. A
search engine can index it.

Suppose you want something more expressive. You want the word
really to be in italic type:

My Samoyed is <I>really</I> hairy.

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. The <I> is markup. It tells the browser to start rendering words in italics. The </I> closes the <I> element and stops the italics If you want to be more tasteful, you can tell the browser to emphasize the word really:

My Samoyed is <EM>really</EM> hairy.

Most browsers use italics to emphasize, but some use boldface and browsers for ancient ASCII terminals (e.g., Lynx) have to ignore this tag or come up with a clever rendering method. A picky user with the right browser program can even customize the rendering of particular tags.

There are a few dozen more tags in HTML. You can learn them by choosing
View Source from a Web browser when visiting sites whose formatting you
admire. You can also work through a comprehensive HTML guide, e.g.,
http://www.w3schools.com/html/html_reference.asp (Web) and
HTML & XHTML: The Definitive Guide by Musciano and Kennedy (O’Reilly, 2002; print).

Document Structure

Rollercoaster.  Santa Cruz, California

Armed with a big pile of tags, you can start strewing them among your
words more or less at random. Though browsers are extremely forgiving of
technically illegal markup, it is useful to know that an HTML document
officially consists of two pieces: the head and the body.
The head contains information about the document as a whole, such as the
title. The body contains information to be displayed by the user’s

Another structure issue is that you should try to make sure that you
close every element that you open. So if your document has a
<BODY> it should have a </BODY> at the end. If you
start an HTML table with a <TABLE> and don’t have a
</TABLE>, a Web browser may display nothing. Tags can
overlap, but you should close the most recently opened before the
rest, e.g., for something both boldface and italic:

My Samoyed is <B><I>really</I></B> hairy.



STPP Graduate Certificate program | The Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan


The STPP graduate certificate program is designed for students already enrolled in a degree program at the University of Michigan. Master’s or doctoral students from any field are welcome to apply. No background in science or in policy is required. 

In 12 credit hours of course work (two core courses and two electives), students learn how science and technology are influenced by politics and policy, analyze the role of science and technology in the policymaking process, develop policy writing skills, gain methods and tools for science and technology policy analysis, and explore the political and policy landscape of specific science and technology areas, including biotechnology, information and communication technology, energy policy, and more.

Learn how to apply to the STPP Certificate program.

The program provides students with tools to analyze complex science and technology policy issues, and consider the following types of questions:

  • How are science and technology influenced by the policy process?
  • What is the rightful place of science in public policymaking?
  • What values and assumptions underlie our current understanding of science and technology?
  • Who should make decisions about science and technology policy? Only experts? Or should lay people also have a voice?
  • How should policymakers deal with the risks and uncertainties that come from new science and technology (e.g., biotechnology, nanotechnology, geoengineering)?

The STPP experience doesn’t end in the classroom. Students attend lectures on a wide variety of topics–biotechnology, public health, energy, sustainability, and more–by active players in the science and technology policy field. STPP students also have a chance to meet the speakers for lunch and other small-group interactions, asking questions about their work and field. Other STPP gatherings include regular movie nights (with pizza, naturally); a yearly career luncheon with professors, postdocs, and senior students; and opportunities to participate in special policy engagement projects.

STPP gives students an excellent opportunity to meet and collaborate with people in a wide range of fields. STPP students and faculty hail from the natural sciences, engineering, business, law, dentistry, public health, and public policy. Through these interdisciplinary relationships, students have a chance to build their professional networks, so they leave not only with a certificate, but also with relationships with colleagues in a wide range of fields, preparing them to work in an increasingly interdisciplinary world.

With an STPP certificate, students are prepared to:

  • Participate in the politics and policy of science and technology as government officials, members of non-governmental organizations, or practicing scientists/engineers.
  • Engage in science and technology policy analysis through think-tanks, industry, or academia.

Prepared to serve

In their roles as the heads of research labs, scientists and engineers constantly feel the impact of science and technology policies and are often called upon to serve as expert witnesses for Congressional hearings or to sit on government advisory committees. 

The STPP certificate prepares graduate students to play such roles in the future. They learn about the policy process related to the conduct and management of research and development, the distinguishing economic characteristics and consequences of science and technology,


Robotics Programming Tutorial: How to Program a Simple Robot

Editor’s note: On October 16th, 2018, this article was overhauled to work with the latest technologies.

Let’s face it, robots are cool. They’re also going to run the world some day, and hopefully, at that time they will take pity on their poor soft fleshy creators (a.k.a. robotics developers) and help us build a space utopia filled with plenty. I’m joking of course, but only sort of.

In my ambition to have some small influence over the matter, I took a course in autonomous robot control theory last year, which culminated in my building a Python-based robotic simulator that allowed me to practice control theory on a simple, mobile, programmable robot.

In this article, I’m going to show how to use a Python robot framework to develop control software, describe the control scheme I developed for my simulated robot, illustrate how it interacts with its environment and achieves its goals, and discuss some of the fundamental challenges of robotics programming that I encountered along the way.

In order to follow this tutorial on robotics programming for beginners, you should have a basic knowledge of two things:

  • Mathematics—we will use some trigonometric functions and vectors
  • Python—since Python is among the more popular basic robot programming languages—we will make use of basic Python libraries and functions

The snippets of code shown here are just a part of the entire simulator, which relies on classes and interfaces, so in order to read the code directly, you may need some experience in Python and object oriented programming.

Finally, optional topics that will help you to better follow this tutorial are knowing what a state machine is and how range sensors and encoders work.

The Challenge of the Programmable Robot: Perception vs. Reality, and the Fragility of Control

The fundamental challenge of all robotics is this: It is impossible to ever know the true state of the environment. Robot control software can only guess the state of the real world based on measurements returned by its sensors. It can only attempt to change the state of the real world through the generation of control signals.

This graphic demonstrates the interaction between a physical robot and computer controls when practicing Python robot programming.

Robot control software can only guess the state of the real world based on measurements returned by its sensors.

Thus, one of the first steps in control design is to come up with an abstraction of the real world, known as a model, with which to interpret our sensor readings and make decisions. As long as the real world behaves according to the assumptions of the model, we can make good guesses and exert control. As soon as the real world deviates from these assumptions, however, we will no longer be able to make good guesses, and control will be lost. Often, once control is lost, it can never be regained. (Unless some benevolent outside force restores it.)

This is one of the key reasons that robotics programming is so difficult. We often see videos of the latest research robot in the lab, performing fantastic feats of dexterity, navigation,


Computer program | Britannica

Computer program, detailed plan or procedure for solving a problem with a computer; more specifically, an unambiguous, ordered sequence of computational instructions necessary to achieve such a solution. The distinction between computer programs and equipment is often made by referring to the former as software and the latter as hardware.

Read More default image

Read More on This Topic

numerical analysis: Computer software

Software to implement common numerical analysis procedures must be reliable, accurate, and efficient. Moreover, it must be written so as…

Programs stored in the memory of a computer enable the computer to perform a variety of tasks in sequence or even intermittently. The idea of an internally stored program was introduced in the late 1940s by the Hungarian-born mathematician John von Neumann. The first digital computer designed with internal programming capacity was the EDVAC (acronym for Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), constructed in 1949.

A program is prepared by first formulating a task and then expressing it in an appropriate computer language, presumably one suited to the application. The specification thus rendered is translated, commonly in several stages, into a coded program directly executable by the computer on which the task is to be run. The coded program is said to be in machine language, while languages suitable for original formulation are called problem-oriented languages. A wide array of problem-oriented languages has been developed, some of the principal ones being COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language), FORTRAN (Formula Translation), BASIC (Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), and Pascal. (See also computer programming language.)

Computers are supplied with various programs designed primarily to assist the user to run jobs or optimize system performance. This collection of programs, called the operating system, is as important to the operation of a computer system as its hardware. Current technology makes it possible to build in some operating characteristics as fixed programs (introduced by customer orders) into a computer’s central processing unit at the time of manufacture. Relative to user programs, the operating system may be in control during execution, as when a time-sharing (q.v.) monitor suspends one program and activates another, or at the time a user program is initiated or terminated, as when a scheduling program determines which user program is to be executed next. Certain operating-system programs, however, may operate as independent units to facilitate the programming process. These include translators (either assemblers or compilers), which transform an entire program from one language to another; interpreters, which execute a program sequentially, translating at each step; and debuggers, which execute a program piecemeal and monitor various circumstances, enabling the programmer to check whether the operation of the program is correct or not.

Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.
Subscribe today

Source Article


Computer program – Wikipedia

Instructions to be executed by a computer

A computer program is a collection of instructions[1] that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific task. Most computer devices require programs to function properly.

A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language. From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler or assembler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute. Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter.

A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software. Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines, such as application software and system software. The underlying method used for some calculation or manipulation is known as an algorithm.


Code-breaking algorithms have existed for centuries. In the 9th century, the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi described a cryptographic algorithm for deciphering encrypted code, in A Manuscript On Deciphering Cryptographic Messages. He gave the first description of cryptanalysis by frequency analysis, the earliest code-breaking algorithm.[2]

Early programmable machines[edit]

The earliest programmable machines preceded the invention of the digital computer. As early as the 9th century, a programmable music sequencer was invented by the Persian Banu Musa brothers, who described an automated mechanical flute player in the Book of Ingenious Devices.[3][4] In 1206, the Arab engineer Al-Jazari invented a programmable drum machine where musical mechanical automata could be made to play different rhythms and drum patterns.[5] In 1801, Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised a loom that would weave a pattern by following a series of perforated cards. Patterns could be woven and repeated by arranging the cards.[6]

Analytical Engine[edit]

In 1837, Charles Babbage was inspired by Jacquard’s loom to attempt to build the Analytical Engine.[6]
The names of the components of the calculating device were borrowed from the textile industry. In the textile industry, yarn was brought from the store to be milled. The device would have had a “store”—memory to hold 1,000 numbers of 40 decimal digits each. Numbers from the “store” would then have then been transferred to the “mill” (analogous to the CPU of a modern machine), for processing. And a “thread” being the execution of programmed instructions by the device. It was programmed using two sets of perforated cards—one to direct the operation and the other for the input variables.[6][7] However, after more than 17,000 pounds of the British government’s money, the thousands of cogged wheels and gears never fully worked together.[8]

During a nine-month period in 1842–43, Ada Lovelace translated the memoir of Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea. The memoir covered the Analytical Engine. The translation contained Note G which completely detailed a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers using the Analytical Engine. This note is recognized by some historians as the world’s first written computer program.[9]

Universal Turing machine[edit]

In 1936, Alan


Computer Hardware, Software program, & Working Systems

The machine can be utilized in each scientific and business applications, however used mainly scientific functions. Lubuntu comes pre-installed with Firefox, Abiword, and different software which most customers sometimes use, but I can easily set up extra software from the Lubuntu software heart which is this system store for downloading and installing packages in Lubuntu.

Should you choose to make use of your computer while sitting at your desk or need to do some heavy-responsibility work, a desktop computer is the way in which to go. You may get nice computer hardware for a reasonable value, and PCs are upgradeable so you’ll be able to swap out a processor or increase the memory in case you feel the need.

The games can be found on a number of platforms including Mac, COMPUTER and Nintendo DS. If you are trying to buy the game, I like to recommend both the Zoo Tycoon: Complete Assortment or the Zoo Tycoon 2: Ultimate Collection (my private favourite proven below).

A variety of tasks to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture began round this time. Have played a lot of the LAPTOP video games within the list. Circuits, computer chips, graphic playing cards, sound playing cards, reminiscence (RAM), motherboard, displays, energy supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and “mice” enter gadgets are all hardware.

Whereas it is possible to write computer programs as long lists of numbers ( machine language ) and while this method was used with many early computers, sixty seven this can be very tedious and probably error-inclined to do so in apply, particularly for sophisticated applications.

Computer programmers write and take a look at code that allows computer applications and software program packages to operate correctly. The Jacquard loom was one of the first programmable gadgets. Excessive occurrences of software program piracy in Asian nations condemned computers in these countries that connected to the Web and ran pirate variations of Microsoft Home windows to be infected by the Conficker worm.…


What Are The Finest Free Web sites To Study To Program?

Gain expertise in present programming languages, program design and programming cell and internet purposes as well as the important communications and problem-fixing skills needed to excel in this discipline. Look by means of your longest and most widely used features and courses – sometimes dividing them up making new capabilities to perform crucial ‘side duties’ can enhance performance and make your code more readable. Pascal is excellent for writing properly-structured and readable applications, however it isn’t as versatile because the C programming language.

Aside from ” programming”, additionally other queries resembling “programming with “, ” improvement” and ” coding” must be tried out. The method of writing code by finding any reply which works, after which looking at find out how to enhance that code, is formalized within the programming method generally known as ‘Test Pushed Development’.

Whereas fairly complicated, getting snug with C++ would give you a deeper understanding of how languages work, for example by giving services for low-degree reminiscence manipulation. These are the constructing blocks of a programming language. May you please suggest me what need to study and tips on how to find logic for fundamental applications.

Virtually all of the pc programming lately is completed with excessive-degree programming languages. Lott wrote 491 pages e book that uses Python to show the learner concepts similar to capabilities, data sorts, objects, conditional statements, and extra. Its roots within the C family of languages makes C# instantly acquainted to C, C++, Java, and JavaScript programmers.

After the primary two strains, we’ve got the physique of this system in a particular function known as fundamental(). Commerce-offs from this superb involve discovering enough programmers who know the language to construct a team, the provision of compilers for that language, and the effectivity with which packages written in a given language execute.

These are simply two very simple programs you can do in Java. Nevertheless it’s a good suggestion to be taught the concepts on easy examples, so that you just’re better ready to use them to the extra complex conditions you may see in your personal code. MyLab Programming is the instructing and studying platform that empowers you to succeed in each student.…


How To Program Your Storage Door Distant Management

Our programming article consists of tutorials for getting started with in style programming languages; tricks and helpful scripts; growth information; tips for selecting a framework; and coding how-tos. At CodeChef we work arduous to revive the geek in you by hosting a programming contest firstly of the month and another smaller programming challenge in the midst of the month. The Battlecode Programming Competitors is a novel problem that combines battle technique, software program engineering, and synthetic intelligence.

You may be pondering that you’ve learnt lot about C language background and now eagerly wish to write your first program in C. To do so initially you need a C compiler, I’ve been using Turbo C++ compiler for this goal. They’ll learn fundamental programming abilities from an internet course, but nonetheless really feel like they can not land their dream job or create the killer app which they have in their mind.

Some languages are highly regarded for specific sorts of purposes, whereas some languages are repeatedly used to write down many different sorts of purposes. Apart from offering a platform for programming competitions, CodeChef also has numerous algorithm tutorials and forum discussions to assist those that are new to the world of laptop programming.

★ COURSES: To make your studying extra interesting and fewer boring, our specialists have created chew-sized and interactive programs which is able to provide help to study programming in a greater manner. The For command above repeats the block of code after the “For :” assertion the identical number of times as there are elements initialised for the array variable number_of_repeats i.e. 10.

An excellent code editor or IDE will help here, as it would mean you can discover and change every instance of a variable name without having to learn via the whole program your self (see A Learners Information to Notepad++ ). All of the applications written in programming language(except machine degree language) is first translated into machine understandable form for its profitable execution.

From the Python IDLE improvement program, you may select the Python Docs from the Help menu. ★ EXAMPLES: over 1800+ programs in 17+ languages and counting, programming hub has one of many largest collection of pre-compiled programs with output for apply and studying.…


How To Write Program And Class In Java Utilizing Netbeans

Gain expertise in present programming languages, program design and programming mobile and internet functions in addition to the essential communications and problem-fixing skills needed to excel in this area. Virtually all the pc programming lately is done with high-level programming languages. Lott wrote 491 pages e-book that makes use of Python to teach the learner ideas equivalent to functions, knowledge types, objects, conditional statements, and more. Its roots within the C family of languages makes C# immediately familiar to C, C++, Java, and JavaScript programmers.

Figure 1.1-1 is a perfect instance of a method utilized in pc science referred to as black boxing or abstracting a program or piece of software. Stevan Little gave a ground-breaking discuss in 2013 known as “Perl just isn’t lifeless, it’s a lifeless end” indicating that after software engineers depart the Perl language they will by no means come back.

Most newer programming languages these days are object-oriented as properly, and while it’s doable to solve numerous problems with out it, it’s best to be taught object-oriented programming in case your language helps it. Python is object-oriented however this might be covered in later tutorials.

Because of this, I extremely advocate deciding on a kind of languages to study first. In this Java programming Tutorial I’ll educate you all of the core information wanted to put in writing Java code in 30 minutes. Mendacity above high-degree languages are languages called fourth-generation languages (usually abbreviated 4GL).

Well, C is basic function computer programming language. The course uses the Python programming language. A programming language is just a device to make a pc do what you want. As a newbie, it may be difficult discovering the perfect book or tutorial for learning a programming language.

This week covers the basics to get you began up with R. The Background Supplies lesson comprises details about course mechanics and some videos on putting in R. The Week 1 movies cover the historical past of R and S, go over the essential knowledge types in R, and describe the functions for reading and writing information.…


Greatest Computer Operating System Software program For Previous Slower Computers

A bus is a set of wires that connect a number of units within a computer system. Lively Data is the information that we will see akin to recordsdata, applications and anything that will be utilized by the working system. The video games listed on this page supply many different experiences from rollercoasters to lemonade to being a fairy godmother.

Screwdriver, flat head screw drivers, torx screwdriver, soldering iron, power provide tester, flashlight, anti-static wrist strap, enlarge glass, tweezers, twist ties, toolbox, soldering iron, arduous drive screws, jumpers, energy supply tester and antistatic gloves I personal and use for fixing my computer.

The game provides a very similar experience to Transport Tycoon but has been up to date (and supported) to work with trendy operating programs, so I’ve to positively recommend it to anyone who likes the idea of a transport based mostly tycoon experience.

Supports all Home windows ninety eight to XP & Vista: Apple Mac OS X and several other styles of Linux and Crimson Hat Linux eight.0. Firefox can be available on the Net, some cellular and Android units. Until then, it is the greatest-rated recreation in town, though there are other softwares for this objective if anyone cares to share their experience with them.

This two-week science enrichment program presents a collection of engaging lectures, labs, and field experiences for high school college students. Find out about CPUs, RAM, motherboards, power supplies, and other COMPUTER element, and the way to repair problems related to computer hardware.

Private computers at home can be utilized for quite a lot of totally different functions including video games, word processing, accounting and other tasks. With minimal connection to the video games of the previous newcomers to the Simply Trigger sequence shall be greatest serviced by Simply Trigger three.…