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Archive of posts published in the category: history
Apr
23

computer | History, Networking, Operating Systems, & Facts

Computer, device for processing, storing, and displaying information.

Computer once meant a person who did computations, but now the term almost universally refers to automated electronic machinery. The first section of this article focuses on modern digital electronic computers and their design, constituent parts, and applications. The second section covers the history of computing. For details on computer architecture, software, and theory, see computer science.

Computing basics

The first computers were used primarily for numerical calculations. However, as any information can be numerically encoded, people soon realized that computers are capable of general-purpose information processing. Their capacity to handle large amounts of data has extended the range and accuracy of weather forecasting. Their speed has allowed them to make decisions about routing telephone connections through a network and to control mechanical systems such as automobiles, nuclear reactors, and robotic surgical tools. They are also

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Apr
9

History of Computers – Long, Long Ago

History of Computers – Long, Long Ago

Definition of a Computer
Simplest definition of a computer: A device that processes input and generates
output

Key words:

  • Input
  • Output
  • Processes
  • Information

Modern Computers are electronic, complex, and interactive, but can be reduced
to simple input-output processing devices

 

History of Computers: 3000 BC to Present

History of Computers – Long, Long Ago
The Abacus

  • beads on rods to count and calculate
  • still widely used in Asia!

 

History of Computers – Way Back When
The Slide Rule 1630

  • based on Napier’s rules for logarithms
  • used until 1970s

 

 

History of Computers – 19th Century
Jacquard Loom

  • used metal cards with punched holes to guide weaving process
  • first stored program – metal cards
  • first computer manufacturing
  • still in use today!

 

 

Charles Babbage – 1792-1871
Difference Engine c.1822

  • huge calculator, never finished

Analytical Engine 1833

  • could store numbers
  • calculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructions
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Apr
9

Computer programming history

Year Event 1843 Ada Lovelace is credited as being the first person to describe or write a computer program. In 1843, she described an algorithm to compute Bernoulli numbers using the Analytical Engine. 1889 The Hollerith tabulating machine was invented by Herman Hollerith in 1889, allowing for data to be programmatically counted and tabulated. 1956 One of the first programming languages, FORTRAN, was introduced to the public on October 15, 1956. It was developed by John Backus and others at IBM. 1958 The second-oldest programming language, LISP was developed by John McCarthy and was first used in 1958. 1959 COBOL started being developed in 1959 by Grace Hopper and Bob Bemer. 1964 The original BASIC programming language was developed by John Kemeny, Mary Keller, and Thomas Kurtz, and was introduced to the public on May 1, 1964. 1965 Simula is considered the first ever object-oriented programming language, developed around 1965
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Apr
7

History of Computers







This chapter is a brief summary of the history of Computers. It is supplemented by the two PBS documentaries video tapes “Inventing the Future”
And “The Paperback Computer”. The
chapter highlights some of the advances to look for in the documentaries.



In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things:

  • The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data:
    1. Vacuum Tubes (1950s) – one bit on the size of a thumb;
    2. Transistors (1950s and 1960s) – one bit on the size of a fingernail;
    3. Integrated Circuits (1960s and 70s) – thousands of bits on the size of a hand
    4. Silicon computer chips (1970s and on) – millions of bits on the size of a finger nail.

  • The progression of the ease of use of computers:
    1. Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses (1950s);
    2. Programmable by highly
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Apr
7

Invention of the PC – HISTORY

Contents

  1. Invention of the PC: The Computer Age
  2. Invention of the PC: Postwar Innovations
  3. The Invention of the PC
  4. The PC Revolution
  5. PHOTO GALLERIES

Today’s personal computers are drastically different from the massive, hulking machines that emerged out of World War II–and the difference isn’t only in their size. By the 1970s, technology had evolved to the point that individuals–mostly hobbyists and electronics buffs–could purchase unassembled PCs or “microcomputers” and program them for fun, but these early PCs could not perform many of the useful tasks that today’s computers can. Users could do mathematical calculations and play simple games, but most of the machines’ appeal lay in their novelty. Today, hundreds of companies sell personal computers, accessories and sophisticated software and games, and PCs are used for a wide range of functions from basic word processing to editing photos to managing budgets. At home and at work, we use our

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Apr
6

A Look at the History of Computers

Before the age of electronics, the closest thing to a computer was the abacus, although, strictly speaking, the abacus is actually a calculator since it requires a human operator. Computers, on the other hand, perform calculations automatically by following a series of built-in commands called software.

In the 20th century, breakthroughs in technology allowed for the ever-evolving computing machines that we now depend upon so totally, we practically never give them a second thought. But even prior to the advent of microprocessors and supercomputers, there were certain notable scientists and inventors who helped lay the groundwork for the technology that’s since drastically reshaped every facet of modern life.

The Language Before the Hardware

The universal language in which computers carry out processor instructions originated in the 17th century in the form of the binary numerical system. Developed by German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, the system came about

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Apr
5

Event-Driven Programming: Introduction, Tutorial, History

In late 2005, I was trying to learn event-driven programming. I searched
the Web for an explanation of the basic concepts of event-driven programming, but I
couldn’t find one. So I wrote one. I hope it will help you in your attempt to learn
event-driven programming.

You can download the paper HERE.
It is available in both PDF format and in Microsoft
Word format. I make it available in Microsoft Word format so that it will be
easy to translate or subset the document, complete with embedded
images.

This document is finalized and no longer being actively maintained, but if you wish
you can leave a review.



Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License.

The Creative Commons Attribution License gives you permission to do
virtually anything you want with this work, including copying all or part of
it, distributing it, and making derived works (including translations)

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Apr
3

Computer History

Computer History


An Illustrated History of Computers

Part 1


___________________________________



John Kopplin © 2002


The first computers were people! That is, electronic computers
(and the earlier mechanical computers) were given this name because they
performed the work that had previously been assigned to people.
“Computer” was originally a job title: it was used to describe
those human beings (predominantly women) whose job it was to perform the
repetitive calculations required to
compute such things as navigational tables, tide charts, and planetary
positions for astronomical almanacs. Imagine you had a job where hour after
hour, day after day, you were to do nothing but compute multiplications.
Boredom would quickly set in, leading to carelessness, leading to mistakes. And
even on your best days you wouldn’t be producing answers very fast. Therefore,
inventors have been searching for hundreds of years

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