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Archive of posts published in the category: design

Engineering & Design | College of Science & Engineering

The Engineering & Design Department office is currently closed for the safety of students, staff, and faculty.  We are working remotely and are available to answer your questions.  Please call 360.650.3380 or send an email to engd@wwu.edu.  We are available!  Thank you for your patience and understanding. 


The Engineering & Design Department, in the College of Science and Engineering, offers access to four Bachelor of Science degrees: Electrical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, Plastics & Composites Engineering, and Industrial Design. These programs place an emphasis on practical laboratory experiences, in addition to theoretical course work. Each program’s curriculum is designed with input from strong industrial advisory committees to prepare students for professional positions in industry. It is important to know that admissions and advising information is specific to each major and students are encouraged to become familiar with the requirements. 


Graduates of the programs have consistently been placed in positions appropriate to their field of study. Companies that employ graduates include Alpha, Boeing, CH2M-Hill, Cypress Semiconductor, Daktronics, Fleck, Fluke, Janicki Industries, Mentor Graphics, Microsoft, Nike, Physio-Control, PACCAR, Pro-CNC, Oculus, R & D Plastics, Rane Corporation, Rothenbuhler Engineering, SpaceX, TEAGUE, Tempress, Triquest, Universal Avionics, and Safran.

Current Students

Students have numerous opportunities to participate in projects and undergraduate research with faculty members. Additionally, students can choose to work on projects directly with industry partners as part of their course work. Some of the companies that have participated in research and other projects include Anvil Studios, Artefact, Avante, Conterra, Microsoft, Milwaukee Tool, PACCAR, Nike, Tethers Unlimited, Hexcel, R&D Plastics, and Safran.

Department Newsletters

Fall 2019

Fall 2018


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WebsiteTips.com Web Design Tips, Web Page Design Tutorials CSS HTML Tutorials Website Design Tips

WebsiteTips.com is an educational Web site design and development resource especially for Web site owners, Web designers, Web professionals, webmasters, teachers and educators, students, and anyone wanting to learn about Web sites.

Learn more about HTML, CSS / cascading style sheets, Web site design, Web graphics, Adobe Photoshop, online marketing, Internet marketing, online security, organizing your computer files, and more. Visit the Web Site Articles, Tutorials, and Tips index page, or jump to:
Adobe Photoshop Tutorials and Tips; CSS: Cascading Style Sheets Tutorials and Tips; HTML Tutorials and Tips; Marketing, Advertising for Your Web Site; Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Marketing (SEM) Articles, Tutorials, and Tips; Web Site Usability; and much more.

WebsiteTips.com’s hallmark is our hand-picked, carefully selected, extensive listing of over 2,400 annotated resources. Our Web Site Resources section includes annotated links to best-practice tutorials, articles, resources, software programs, helpful Web design tools, and information on the Web for beginners and novices to experts — such as HTML and CSS tutorials, color charts, fonts, search engine optimization (SEO) and marketing (SEM), graphics and graphics software programs tutorials, accessibility, usability, information architecture, and more.

Visit the Web Site Resources Table of Contents or jump to:
Design, Web Design: Color and color charts and tools at this site, Creativity, Inspiration, Design and Layout, Fonts, Graphics, Logo Design,Typography;
Graphics: Graphics, Graphics Software, Graphics Filters, Plugins, Graphics Tools, Software Tools, Where to Find Photos, Images, Graphics, Icons;
Markup and Code: CSS, DHTML, HTML, JavaScript, ECMAScript, AJAX, PHP, Regular Expressions (Regex), SSI, XHTML, XML;
Online Marketing, Internet Marketing: Online Marketing, Google AdSense, Google AdWords;
User Science: Accessibility, Information Architecture, Usability;
Discussion Lists, Online Forums, and Newsgroups; Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Marketing (SEM); Web Content, Writing for the Web; Web Design Business, Small Business; Web Site Optimization, Speed Optimization; Tools, Software, and more.

WebsiteTips.com has a new Recommended Web Site Books and Software section, all hand-picked: Web site design and development books, books on CSS, HTML, XHTML, and Web standards, PHP books, Web site planning and management books, graphics software and books on graphics programs and Web graphics, books on writing for the Web, Web content, and more. All these books and software programs recommendations help with best practice approaches for Web site designers, developers, and Web site owners. Lots more in the new Recommended Web Site Books and Software section.

VisiBone’s convenient on screen quick HTML and color references packed with HTML tags and the 216-color swatches, are available here. Use them online or download them for offline use.

Would you like to link to us? Download your choice of icons and grab the HTML markup.

What’s New

Online Marketing, Internet Marketing: WebsiteTips.com launched another new category, this time on online marketing, Internet marketing. Topics in this huge subject cover tutorials on online marketing, Internet marketing in general, Internet PPC (pay-per-click) advertising campaigns, marketing plans and strategies, and much more. You’ll also find a section on top-notch Internet marketing resources, such as online marketing newsletters,


We support and champion design and technology education in schools

We are a membership organisation providing advice, support and training for those involved in teaching design, engineering and technology. We work closely with government, awarding bodies, Ofsted and other regulators, advising on the curriculum and lobbying on behalf of the subject. We also work with employers and corporate partners to help promote the value of the subject and the range of careers and opportunities to which it can lead. We specialise in developing links between education and industry to mutual benefit.

Design and technology pupils develop designing and making skills, learn about electronics, computing, engineering, CAD, CAM, robotics, materials and textiles technology. They also develop business critical skills in problem-solving, innovation and team-work.

So… How Important is Design and Technology? …

Join now Learn more

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Web Design & SEO by ACS | Syracuse Web Design | Google Partners |

What Is Mobile Web Design?

A mobile web design is a form of web design that makes a site look and function well on mobile devices, such as smart phones and tablets. Because people interact with websites differently on mobile devices as compared to desktops or laptops, a mobile web design is necessary to fulfill the growing consumer demand and expectation for user-friendly mobile websites. The cornerstone of ACS, Inc. Web Design & SEO’s mobile web design process is the application of a responsive web design. A responsive web design is responsive to the display size of the device, meaning the website’s design self-adjusts to feature the best display for the device being used.

To better understand mobile web design, it’s necessary to understand that a site that is made using a responsive web design is optimized for use on a phone or tablet compared to how the site would appear on a desktop or laptop. Our mobile web design solutions are developed with an intense knowledge of how people interact with mobile websites, maximizing accessibility for your customers’ or clients’ unique needs.

With 31% percent of people preferring mobile devices as their go-to way to get online (according to the Pew Research Center), coupled with the reality that 60% of all web traffic comes from mobile devices, a professional websites that don’t have a mobile friendly design provide a bad first impression and an irritating experience for a significant number of your potential clients or customers.

Is Mobile Web Design Helpful For Customers?

ACS, Inc.’s mobile web design solutions make your site user-friendly no matter people’s preferred device for web browsing. On the internet, impressions are made in milliseconds. People tend to visit a site less often if it’s only 250 milliseconds slower than a competitor’s, according to the New York Times. Considering the large, increasing portion of people going online with mobile devices, companies that don’t have a site built with a mobile web design are at a competitive disadvantage.

Through detailed, expert page speed optimization, ACS, Inc. provides all of our web design clients with a professional mobile web design that minimizes load times, ensuring your potential customers or clients can focus on what you’re offering rather than being frustrated by slow load times and blank pages.

ACS, Inc. also excels in providing secure mobile web design solutions to meet the unique demands of specific industries. A specific example of this is our experience in empowering banks and credit unions to provide mobile banking, a feature that’s in high demand as mobile banking usage almost doubled from 2011 to 2013.

Make A Good First Impression With Mobile Web Design

Websites that don’t have a mobile web design can be frustrating to interact with. Often, pages are difficult to get to because links or buttons are too close together, causing repeated clicking to the wrong site section. Without a mobile web design, users may need to manually zoom in and out to find what they’re looking for. Doing


Page 1 SEO Design – Madison WI Internet Search Engine Marketing Firm

Page 1 SEO Design is Committed to Creating a Professional Website Design and a Search Engine Marketing Goal:

If you’re going to have a website to help market and sell
your products and services, you need to be on Page 1 of Google
and other search engines, and everything you do to build and
maintain your website must support and contribute to that goal.

Whether we build your website from the ground up, or help
you “tweak” and optimize your existing site, our job isn’t done
until your business is on Page 1 for the keyword terms your
customers use most to find your business!

Page 1 Search Engine Results

Page 1 Search Engine Results – “It’s What We Do”

Search Engine Optimization

ALL Page 1 products and services include professional search
engine optimization (SEO), and are available as stand alone
services that can
be applied to your existing website
, or as part of a
complete turnkey
that will have you online in as little as 1

If you’re trying to figure out how to put the Internet to
work for your business, partner with experienced professionals
who know how to get the job done
on time,
on budget
and on Page 1!

Page 1 SEO Design specializes in generating
online results and success for businesses just like yours. We
take the time to understand your online goals and objectives.
The result? A great looking web site and customized Internet
strategy … complete with Google Analytics … to get you the
best possible results from the Internet.

The Page 1 SEO Design team can help you put
together a profitable advertising campaign to generate high
quality leads, online sales and brand exposure, just like they
have for thousands of business for over ten years.

Large or small, Page 1 SEO Design has an
affordable plan to put your business on Page 1!

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JVSG: CCTV Design Software

This software offers a new way to design modern video surveillance systems quickly and easily.

download now buy now

Version for Windows 10, 8, 7, XP SP3 is available (what is new?, Upgrade from any previous version, Download, 285 MB). | Mac OS users

With IP Video System Design Tool you can:

  • Increase efficiency of your security system while lowering costs finding the best camera locations.
  • Calculate precise camera lens focal lengthviewing angles and pixel density (PPM/PPF) in seconds.
  • Check  identification, recognition, observation, detection and monitoring zones of each camera on your site plan.
  • Minimize dead zones to increase the security level of your premises using 2D and 3D modeling.
  • Get estimations of required network bandwidth and calculate the required HDD storage space for video archives.
  • Load site plan or floor plan from JPEG, PNG, PDF, TIFF file. Import AutoCAD DWG drawings (Pro)
  • Print or export your project to PDF.  Copy your calculations, drawings and 3D mockups to MS Word, Excel, Visio or other software to create an excellent project documentation.


With IP Video System Design Tool you can calculate both network bandwidth and storage space for 30 camera resolutions and several compression methods, including H.264, H.265, Motion JPEG and MPEG-4. IP Video System Design Tool enables the system designer to find optimal FPS and compression that tailors to LAN capabilities and calculate required HDD storage space.

IP Video System Design Tool includes a field of view calculator, lens focal length, CCTV storage and bandwidth calculators, pixel density and resolution calculator and many other CCTV tools so you can design a video surveillance system quickly, easily and professionally.

How does it work?

Part 1: Camera installation drawing, field of view, lens focal length and pixel density

Part 2: Pixel density, camera zones, identification, recognition, detection and EN 62676-4: 2015

Part3: Working with site plan, adding obstacles and 3D models

Part4: 3D View Simulation, DVR View

    Camera Zone Coverage Calculation

    CCTV Floor plan modeling and camera Zone Coverage<br /> Calculation

    Camera Installation Plan


    Network Bandwidth and Storage Space Requrements Calculation


    CCTV Camera Design - 3D Mockups

    Realistic 3D models help create visually attractive proposals and video surveillance projects that stand out.


    User 3D models import function (Pro version) allows to import free 3D models from Google 3D Warehouse and from other 3D software that supports open Collada format.

    User 3D models import function (Pro version) allows to import free 3D models from Google 3D Warehouse and from other 3D software that supports open Collada format.


    What people say about this software?

    JVSG recommended by "Digital Video Surveillance and Security," book

    -”If you google “lens calculator” a number will come up for you to use or you can choose the IP Video System Design Tool, a small undiscovered gem.

    Pages 234, 235, “Digital Video Surveillance & Security” book, Second Edition, ISBN-10: 0124200427  by Anthony C. Caputo, 2014


    – “JVSG’s IP Video System Design Tool is a must have for any system designer. There is no need for guesswork anymore. Using this excellent feature rich software you can design a detailed and accurate system from the comfort of your office. No more blind spots or miscalculated lens sizes. It truly is a must have!‘

    Stephen Cronshaw  , Field Technical Services Engineer
    ADI Global Distribution


    – “I have been using the JVSG IP CCTV designing software since 2010. Buying this software has been the best business


Design Criteria for Programming Languages

Design Criteria for Programming Languages

last updated

What are the goals of the language?  Below are a list of guiding principles
in the design of programming languages.
Most of which are listed in your textbook.
Principles may be conflicting.  No language can accomplish all goals.

Language Goals

During 1950s–1960s – Compile programs to execute efficiently. 

  • There was a direct connection between language features and hardware – integers, reals, goto statements
  • Programmers cheap;
  • Machines expensive;
  • Keep the machine busy

But today

  • Compile programs that are built efficiently
  • CPU power and memory very cheap
  • Direct connection between language features and design concepts – encapsulation, records, inheritance, functionality, assertions





General attributes of a good language

Clarity, simplicity, and unity – provides both a framework for thinking about algorithms and a means of expressing those algorithms 

Orthogonality -every combination of features is meaningful

Naturalness for the application – program structure reflects the logical structure of algorithm

Support for abstraction – program data reflects problem being solved

Ease of program verification – verifying that program correctly performs its required function 

Programming environment – external support for the language

Portability of programs – transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems

Cost of use – program execution, program translation, program creation, and program maintenance




Efficiency of execution

This is the earliest of design criteria, because of small memories and slow

 FORTRAN had (has) statements that resembled machine instructions.


GOTO (10,20,30,40,50),I  FORTRAN’s “computed goto” 
IF(A(I) - MID) 20,30,40  FORTRAN’s “arithmetic if”
x <<= 3 C’s bit pushing operators





This is the quality of expressivity in a language. Writability should be
clear, concise, quick and correct

 APL is an extreme case

A <- i 12 p 3 4 results in a 3×4 matrix initialized with consecutive integers:

[1 2 3 4]
[5 6 7 8]
[9 10 11 12]

 LISP has simple, writable syntax in that data structures and program
structures use same syntax.

(f a1 a2 a3 ... an)
is the statement and functional syntax
(function name and arguments follow)
(+ 12 total)

(1 2 3 4 (5 6 ) 7 (9 10))) is a data structure that can represent a tree like
structure, nested lists, matrices, etc.



The quality of a language that enables  the reader (even non-programmers)
to understand the nature of the computation or algorithm.

 COBOL is the extreme example 

            VARYING I FROM 1 TO 10






Efficient executable code



  • statically declared variables (vs stack based variables) are easy to reference
  • constants (#define)
  • register variables
  • ++ (add 1 operation)





Efficiency of translation

How fast is the compiler or interpreter?

Pascal is easy

  • 1 pass compilation is possible
  • “define it before you use it” rule

Algol has some slow features

  • call-by-name parameter passing
  • procedural parameters (in Pascal too)







Assurance that a program does not behave unexpectedly.

e.g. array bounds checking

  • can be done statically

The 6 Best Programming Languages for Game Design

Programming Languages for Game Development

It’s an inescapable fact that game designers, on occasion, may be asked to do a little programming.

This comes down to entry-level designers often switching their positions in teams a lot, and the nature of game design teams being very fluid.

It is not unusual for designers to step in and program, freeing up the game programmers to work on something more complicated, just like it is not unusual for programmers to be consulted during the design process.

That said, getting started in programming can be a little daunting.

What is the best language for game development?

Currently, The best programming languages for games are:

  • C++
  • Java
  • HTML5
  • CSS3
  • JavaScript
  • SQL

Game programming is the lifeblood and skeletal framework for all games you and I play. All of the crazy things you can do in the Grand Theft Auto games? ALl programmed.

How is programming used in games?

Well, It takes a team of talented game programmers to add detailed facets of games, along with the finished base product. Programming utilizes code to make the game a living, breathing thing. Programmers turn lines of code into fully functional and, sometimes, classic games.

Which programming language is used in games?

There is a long list. The main coding languages, however, are C++, C#, and old reliable HTML5.

Do game programmers make good money?

It depends. If you are a small time indie game programmer, unfortunately the answer is no: you will be making somewhere around $10,000-$12,000. Not exactly a king’s ransom. However, if you are working at a bigger studio on a bigger project with more experience, you could make upwards of $100,000.

Where to Start?

There are literally thousands of programming languages out there (although it’s worth saying that only a very small subset is used frequently), so how does a fresh new game designer-come-developer know where to start?

Well, that’s what this article is about!

It’s no lie that there is only a small subset of commonly-used languages, and the languages used for games are an even smaller subset of that.

There are two main types of programming you should focus on as well, something called ‘systems’ programming, and ‘web’ programming.

Both are important, although what you end up doing will mostly be down to the focus of the studio and their in-development titles.

Systems Programming

Systems programming means programming for a stand-alone application, such as a video game run on your machine.

The two most common languages for game designers to learn are C++ and Java, although other languages are popular (such as C# for Unity).

Another type of programming you may hear referred to is scripting, but that essentially comes down to a type of systems programming.

Web Programming

Web Programming for game development

Web programming is used, funnily enough, for applications that are run through a browser over a web interface.

Web languages are not so much one-or-the-other, they work in unison to create the kind


Modern Industrial Design Ideas and Future Technology

Eather One is a conceptual plane powered by electric motor, it’s a vision of the future, where planes were all electric. This project is an attempt to revolutionize flying, what if Airbus created an electric plane, what would it look like? The main problem of an electric plane lies in the weight of the battery, […]

Eather One Electric Plane Concept Generates Its Power from Air Friction

With a rise in accidents involving cyclists in London is it time to incorporate safety into the new low/zero emission target of England’s capital? With the popularity of the ‘Barclays Bike Hire’ scheme (now sponsored by Santander) this vehicle is designed as an alternative to work alongside the scheme allowing users to hire the small […]

All Electric Concept Car Proposal for “Barclays Car Hire” System

The Handle is an award winning concept design that uses invisible tech for a smart lock door handle. It has multiple sensors that detect movement as you are getting close, the back lighting would automatically turn on to guide you where to touch the backside of fingerprint identifying area. Instead of just using numbers as […]

The Handle – Minimalist and Elegant Smart Door Lock Handle

In not so distant future, autonomous vehicles would cover majority of city’s roads. XiM20 is an interior project dedicated for driverless car equipped with advanced technology and innovations to complement the intuitive design. The interior provides passengers with flexibility and comfort for autonomous ride-share of the future. The front area is designed as an observation […]

XiM20 Project Offers Futuristic and Elegant Autonomous Ride-Share Interior Concept

Avoid getting cold this spring with Nike ISPA Inflate Jacket. It’s an innovative jacket that provides you warmth on-demand. The “I” in ISPA asks designers to improvise a solution from a problem that we often have to deal with. ISPA (Improvise, Scavenge, Protect and Adapt) project doesn’t want to just focus on athletes, this time, […]

Nike ISPA Inflate Jacket Keeps Your Warm This Spring

Work from home? You need a comfortable chair, desk, and a good lamp. Z-Bar Gen 3 Desk Lamp offers three-bar lamp design that would provides you with infinite flexibility, especially in contemporary workspace. It has touchstrip dimmer that’s located near the head for easy access and control the light’s strength. You can also customize your […]

Work From Home? Here’s a Z-Bar Gen 3 Desk Lamp for Infinite Flexibility

Big things can come in small package, take a look at Leatherman FREE-T4 Multi-tool. It’s a handsome EDC that has all assets from T2 plus scissors, tweezers, and heavy-duty file. It is designed


Design Principles from Design Patterns

Leading-Edge Java
Design Principles from Design Patterns
A Conversation with Erich Gamma, Part III
by Bill Venners
June 6, 2005



In this interview, Erich Gamma, co-author of the landmark
book, Design Patterns, talks with Bill Venners about
two design principles: program to an interface, not an
implementation, and favor object composition over class

Erich Gamma lept onto the software world stage in 1995 as
co-author of the best-selling book Design Patterns: Elements
of Reusable Object-Oriented Software
(Addison-Wesley, 1995)
[1]. This landmark
work, often referred to as the Gang of Four (GoF) book, cataloged
23 specific solutions to common design problems. In 1998, he
teamed up with Kent Beck to produce JUnit [2], the de facto unit
testing tool in the Java community. Gamma currently is an IBM
Distinguished Engineer at IBM’s Object Technology International
(OTI) lab in Zurich, Switzerland. He provides leadership in the
Eclipse community, and is responsible for the Java development
effort for the Eclipse platform [3].

On October 27, 2004, Bill Venners met with Erich Gamma at the
OOPSLA conference in Vancouver, Canada. In this interview, which
will be published in multiple installments in Leading-Edge
on Artima Developer, Gamma gives insights into software

  • In Part I: How to Use Design
    , Gamma describes gives his opinion on the
    appropriate ways to think about and use design patterns, and
    describes the difference between patterns libraries, such as
    GoF, and an Alexandrian pattern language.
  • In Part II: Erich Gamma on Flexibility
    and Reuse
    , Gamma discusses the importance of reusability,
    the risks of speculating, and the problem of frameworkitis.
  • In this third installment, Gamma discusses two design
    principles highlighted in the GoF book: program to an
    interface, not an implementation, and favor object composition
    over class inheritance.

Bill Venners: In the introduction of the GoF book, you
mention two principles of reusable object-oriented design. The
first principle is: “Program to an interface, not an
implementation.” What’s that really mean, and why do it?

Erich Gamma: This principle is really about dependency
relationships which have to be carefully managed in a large app.
It’s easy to add a dependency on a class. It’s almost too easy;
just add an import statement and modern Java development tools
like Eclipse even write this statement for you. Interestingly the
inverse isn’t that easy and getting rid of an unwanted dependency
can be real refactoring work or even worse, block you from
reusing the code in another context. For this reason you have to
develop with open eyes when it comes to introducing dependencies.
This principle tells us that depending on an interface is often

Bill Venners: Why?

Erich Gamma:Once you depend on interfaces only, you’re
decoupled from the implementation. That means the implementation
can vary, and that’s a healthy dependency relationship. For
example, for testing purposes you can replace a heavy database
implementation with a lighter-weight mock implementation.
Fortunately, with today’s refactoring support you no longer have
to come up with