Reference Manual

Terms Of Use

About A+

History of A+
Who Wrote A+?
Programs Written in A+

Getting A+

Other Software

A+ Community

Mail Contacts
Other Resources
The Reviews

A+ Web Site

A+ is a powerful and efficient programming
language. It is freely available under the
GNU General Public License.
It embodies a rich set of functions and operators, a modern graphical
user interface with many widgets and automatic synchronization of
widgets and variables, asynchronous execution of functions associated
with variables and events, dynamic loading of user compiled
subroutines, and many other features. Execution is by a rather
efficient interpreter. A+ was created at Morgan Stanley.
Primarily used in a computationally-intensive business environment,
many critical applications written
in A+ have withstood the demands of real world developers over many
years. Written in an interpreted language, A+ applications
tend to be portable.

Web hosting provided by
Morgan Stanley.

Fixes for 64bit.
These have been released in 4.22-1.
Neil Roeth has provided a patch to resolve compiler issues with the latest gcc versions.
These have been released in 4.20-2. Thanks Neil!
Pedro Rodrigues de Almeida has documented how to install A+ on
Mac OS X (10.3.1) and setup Xemacs. This can be found in the
FAQ. Thanks to Pedro for work on this
detailed reference.
A new source distribution, 4.20-1, is available
on the Download page.
This release supports the newer version of gcc and contains
some bug fixes and new features. For complete details see
the ChangeLog file in the distribution.
Alexander Skomorokhov, Alexander Nakhabov, and Pavel Belousov
have created PDF versions of the documentation from the html
You can access them from the documentation section on the
download page.
Thanks to all!.

This year’s APL Conference (APL2002) had two
accepted papers related to A+ and also featured some A+ tutorials.

Neil Roeth has packaged the latest A+ release for Debian/GNU Linux system.
You can access the Debian packages on the
download page and find
instructions on how to install them on the
installation page.

Thanks, Neil.

There is a new context, t, for creating and working
with tables in a database manner. For documentation
see the “t context” under “Extensions and Tools” in the
Reference Manual (in the left vertical
frame towards the bottom.)
There is new directory containing gadgets (utilities).
Each of the A+ scripts has a corresponding .doc file
describing its function. Tutorials are also included.

The t context and gadgets will be included in future releases.
To add these items to your current installation download
and unpack the T &
file into the installation directory. E.g.,

    cd /usr/local
    gunzip -c /tmp/t_and_gadgets.tar.gz | tar -xvf -

Matthias Neeracher has written a simple filter script and describes the steps
necessary to use the TrueType APL font (thanks Adrian) under Mac OS X
in a Terminal window. E.g., your machine is too wimpy to run
X11 comfortably and you don’t need the A+ screen package. The procedure
and download link for the filter are in the FAQ.
Thank’s Matthias for the neat solution.
The “-8” distribution is upon us.
Distributions are now available for Mac OS X,
PowerPC Linux and 64bit Irix on the
Download page.
In addition to the usual “minor changes” for new
platforms there are bug fixes/enhancements. You can check the
We have a new FAQ, our 4th
(but 3rd in the ordering) and
a tip with some XEmacs/Lisp for non-US keyboards from
Tomas G. (thanks) also on the FAQ
Distribution “-7” is ready. The MStk portion of the
code has been modified to compile with current
versions of GCC C++ (2.95.3, 3.0.1, etc.) Thanks Ik. That
allowed us to port to a number of new platforms.
for Intel IA64, IBM Z900/S360, IBM
R/S6000 and NetBSD have been added. Thanks to Bob and
others at IBM
whose help with the AIX port applied to several
other platforms too.
Distribution “-6” is released. This version incorporates
some source code changes to enable compiling on Compaq’s
Tru64(tm) Unix with cxx. A
binary distribution for Tru64
is available on the Download page.

An entry to the FAQ has been added with
advice for users of German keyboards
courtesy of Edgar M. E. Wermuth.

The A+ bootable Linux CD was distributed at APL2001
and Boston USENIX 2001. This CD contains the contents
of the web site (including of course source,
binaries and documentation). When the CD is placed in an
Intel PC and booted it will run a full version of Red Hat Linux
7.1, start an X server and invoke A+ within an xterm. This is done
from the CD and memory. The disk is not touched. Thus when you
remove the CD and reboot you are back to your disk based operating
system (e.g., Windows). This is a way to try out A+ (and Linux)
with no hassle and no commitment.

Thanks to the guy who put together superrescue,
H. Peter Anvin <>.

If you’d like a copy of the CD please send email to We can
also electronically send you the CD image (it’s ~600MB) or you
can retrieve it by prior arrangement via the above email address.

Distribution “-5” is the current release. There are
minor source code changes for Alpha Linux.
A+ on Alpha is a 64bit version allowing one to, for example,
multiply 111111111 by itself to yield the integer
12345678987654321. The Alpha Linux distributions are
on the Download page.

The Programs Written in A+
page has been extended, with a copy of the uniq program
in A+’s ASCII character set. The fact A+ operates with three
character sets (apl, ascii and uni) has been a well kept secret.
See Input Mode
for details.

Our first known bug in the open A+ release has been fixed. It
had to do with auto-conversion of
little-endian/big-endian/32bit/64bit mapped files of a single
scalar value.

It’s been noted the fonts for Solaris ought to be compressed
with “compress” rather than “gzip”. Beginning with “-5”
the Solaris distribution will have .Z pcf fonts. Thanks Paul.

Distribution “-4” is now available. There are some
source code changes for FreeBSD. The binary distribution
for FreeBSD is on the Download page.
The distribution now contains contributed code (in the contrib directory).
A couple test scripts are also included. The
Installation page now has
verbage addressing fonts and XEmacs installation.
A binary distribution for Irix is available on the
Download page.
Instructions for
installation on
Debian/GNU Linux
have been added.
A binary distribution for Solaris is available on the
Download page.
A+ mailing list appears. See Mail Contacts.
A+ is released to the public.

Source Article